Gallery University Libraries
In Turkey, there are 168 universities, two thirds of which are state run and one third are so-called foundation universities, i.e. private universities.
The libraries of the big state universities usually have extensive historical collections. Istanbul University, the only university of the country until 1930 is the best example for this. The state university libraries often suffer from insufficient budgets, outdated buildings and organisational structures - exceptions are the libraries of the prominent state universities of Turkey, the Bosporus University in Istanbul, the Middle East Technical University in Ankara and the Ege University in Izmir.
The libraries of the private universities, which were founded after 1980, have newer collections and are in many cases financially stronger and better equipped than the libraries of most state universities, e.g. the libraries of the Koç University or the library of the Sabancı University - both in Istanbul.
The libraries of the universities founded since the 1950s are mostly run with the American one-tier library system. Older universities are managed by the two-tier library system of one central library and several faculty libraries, which had been set by German scientists and librarians.
Nearly all university libraries have own websites, offer online-catalogues, databases and e-books. Most of the university libraries are united in the Turkish University Libraries Consortium ANKOS [Anadolu Üniversite Kütüphaneleri Konsorsiyumu]. The online interlibrary loan system for academic libraries, KITS, which was developed by ANKOS, has been in use since 2009. Furthermore, the governmental institution ULAKBIM offers an online interlibrary loan system (TÜBESS) since 2010. The library holdings of most of the university libraries can be searched in the National Union Catalogue TO-KAT, to which also other library institutions contribute their holdings data.