Collecting, conservation, research and education – up until now, these were the classical tasks of a museum. Today, new challenges await these cultural institutions. Museums are having to adjust to demographic changes and altered viewing habits in the digital age. In this context, a museum’s visibility within the flood of information is decisive, as is the question of whether it leaves a lasting impression in the web.
The need is growing for contact with one’s favourite museum in the web as well. But successful communication in social networks can be achieved only with a smart digital strategy. The Städel Museum in Frankfurt underscores the opportunities present in an unrestricted access for everyone in digital space. Here, too, the Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen (art collection of the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia) in Düsseldorf is committed to artists, but also recommends an individualisation of access. Still haltingly, but with increasing frequency, jobs dealing exclusively with the institution’s digital presentation are being created in museums.
Sender and recipient
Where does one get involved? Not an easy question to answer because each platform has its own dynamics. And target groups’ accessibility cannot be broken down into simple formulae.
Selfie at the Städel Museum in Frankfurt | Photo: Städel Museum, Frankfurt am Main
If one takes a look at museums’ Facebook activities, one sees that, apart from event announcements, postings about the museum’s own works that invite Facebook users to interaction with a trending hook/hashtag are popular. Some institutions are experimenting with the live-video function. Facebook functions like the merchandise displays in the shop windows of a pedestrian zone. Above all, major brands enjoy the greatest popularity. At first place with over 500,000 likes is the Mercedes-Benz Museum in Stuttgart. But exhibition houses with numerous temporary exhibitions also score points. Thus the Schirn Kunsthalle (Schirn Art Hall) in Frankfurt has almost 90,000, the Bundeskunsthalle (German Federal Art and Exhibition Hall) in Bonn a solid 75,000 likes.
On the micro-blogging network Twitter, museums with enhanced interaction are rewarded. If they master real-time communication, they can present their contents to a wide audience and engage in conversation with them, above all in the case of internationally formatted actions such as #MuseumWeek
Sharing and participation
Connecting online and offline worlds makes sense in every respect. Here, museums can build up a faithful following that also acts as an analogue messenger for the institution. Numerous encounters, for instance in tweetups (personal meetings of Twitterers) have demonstrated this. On the occasion of its 200th anniversary, the Städel Museum had 120 participants on site – but all told reached many times that figure online. As guardians of auratic works and for the most part extraordinary architecture, museums maintain and administer valuable image motifs. By enabling access to these images via exclusive photo walks, they are particularly attractive to the growing community of photo-fan influencers on Instagram. Moreover, anyone who follows hashtags such as #artwatchers
will get an urge to visit a museum.
Media changes and transitions bring not only new parameters for the ways in which a museum must present itself outwards. Visitors’ expectations are also changing, since today everyone is able to produce their own contents and wish to make full use of the opportunity. In social networks interaction is what counts most. Put simply, Web 2.0 readily presents itself as the “participatory web.” It’s about much more than just clicking on the like button.
Social-Media-Abend im Städel Museum Frankfurt | Foto: Städel Museum, Frankfurt am Main
Highly successful actions in the social web live from the input of their participants. A case in point was #myRembrandt
, an action initiated by Munich’s Pinakothek art museums. A specially-created replica of a small Rembrandt self-portrait provided bloggers and fans of the museum with the perfect template for telling their own stories. In this way, they became co-curators for new contents. Emotional relationships towards Rembrandt’s art arose, but also a close connection with the institution, which can count regularly on the supporters gained here for future actions.
Mini-storytelling for everyone
But it need not always be large-scale projects. The celebrated user-generated content can be initiated with smaller impulses. In this way, with the action #beuysheute
(Beuys today), the Museum Schloss Moyland inspired numerous fans of the artist to contribute their own thoughts on the anniversary of his death, and thereby making his memory visible in the web.
Social media evening at the Städel Museum Frankfurt | Photo: Städel Museum, Frankfurt am Main
Another extremely popular action in various social networks is the #MuseumSelfie
, an incentive to photograph oneself in a museum and by doing so become part of a world-wide action. In this way, the web assembles countless affirmations of a particular museum or even a specific work of art. The Osthaus Museum Hagen has even gone a step further and developed an exhibition just with selfie stations with celebrated works of art. In this way, the problem with image copyrights that in some institutions has led to photography prohibitions can also be circumvented.
Social media evening | Städel Museum Frankfurt | Photo: Städel Museum, Frankfurt am Main
If we consider the landscape of German museums, a great deal of space in the digital area must still be occupied. Above all, trained personnel are needed if the potentials of an open museum are to prove themselves viable for the future. Universities are therefore urgently called upon not to ignore the topic of cultural mediation in the social web. Then things will work out with the visitors, too.
German cities are full of memorial sites. Memorial culture has undergone fundamental changes in western Germany since the Second World War, and furthermore since reunification.
It all started in the 14th through the 17th centuries, with statues of the hero Roland symbolizing city and town privileges, equestrian statues of generals and princes oriented on Roman models, followed by all the Goethes and Schillers of German classicism. In the wake of the founding of the German Reich in 1871 and the Franco-German War, the nation congratulated itself with a multitude of patriotic victors’ monuments. In particular, the Bismarck cult found expression in 146 Bismarck towers and columns, plus an additional 550 monuments. German cities are full of memorial sites.
German cities are full of memorial sites. Nonetheless, their character changed following the First World War. In place of bombastic victors’ monuments, sites arose in honour of heroically fallen soldiers. After the devastating Second World War, no one felt any further need for hero worship, and in many places additional plaques with the names of fallen fellow citizens were simply added to those of the First World War.
Memorial instead of monument
Since then, monuments celebrating national pride or outstanding personalities from politics, culture or science are no longer expedient. Instead of monuments, memorials arise that warn against war, displacement and exile, and genocide. Since the initiation of the process of coming to terms with the persecution of the Jews in the mid-‘Seventies, more and more memorials have been erected, culminating in Berlin’s Holocaust Memorial. Omnipresent are the so called “Stolpersteine”, literally “stumbling stones”, small cobblestones with gleaming brass plates in front of houses and buildings where the persecuted had lived. To an extent that would be practically unthinkable in other countries, Germans are thematising their own political and moral failure by means of memorials and monuments.
Photo: Marko Priske
1. Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe, Berlin 2005. The Holocaust memorial designed by American architect Peter Eisenman, as the central remembrance site next to the Brandenburg Gate, has become a major public attraction. It consists of a field of 2711 concrete pillars of differing heights, some standing aslant, and a below-ground information point where the history of persecution of the Jews is exemplified and illustrated.
Photo: Marko Priske
2. Memorial to the Sinti and Roma of Europe Murdered under the National Socialist Regime, Berlin 2012. Israeli artist Dani Karavan designed the remembrance site in Berlin’s Tiergarten as a circular, deep-black pool of water with a triangular island on which a fresh flower is continually laid. Glass panels with an inscribed chronology of the genocide enclose the grounds.
Photo: Marko Priske
3. Memorial and Information Point for the Victims of National Socialist “Euthanasia” Killings, Berlin 2014. Initially, a monumental sculpture by American artist Richard Serra from 1986, consisting of two rusting steel plates placed near the Philharmonic, was rededicated as a memorial. In 2014, a light-blue glass wall following a design by Ursula Wilms and Heinz W. Hallmann was added, as well as a long concrete reading pult with informative texts and video stations.
Photo: Karin Richert
4. Stolpersteine (Stumbling Stones). The “Stolpersteine” with which artist Gunter Demnig evokes the memory of those persecuted and murdered during the National Socialist era are to be found set into the sidewalks in front of victims’ former homes. Beginning in 1992, 60,000 square brass plaques with hand-engraved inscriptions have been installed in Germany and 20 other European countries.
Photo: Kristian Philler
5. Memorial to the victims of political persecution in the Soviet Occupation Zone (SBZ) and the GDR from 1945-1989, Jena 2010. The memorial was placed before the former Jena district headquarters of the GDR Ministry of State Security. Following the design by artists Sibylle Mania and Martin Neubert, 285 document boxes made of coloured concrete were stacked on a steel plate, referencing the soullessly administrative perfection of the persecution of regime opponents.
© Milla & Partner
6. Monument to Freedom and Unity, Berlin. The design “Bürger in Bewegung” (i.e. citizens on the move) by event agency Milla & Partner and choreographer Sasha Waltz is planned for the site of the former Kaiser Wilhelm National Monument in front of the City Palace. An enterable bowl will move up and down, following visitors’ actions. The construction, dubbed the “Unity See-Saw,” remains controversial.
Photo: Gedenkstätte Deutsche Teilung Marienborn
7. Marienborn Memorial of German Division. On the 7.5 hectare grounds by the A2, at one time the most important border crossing to the GDR, former transit travellers can now take a look behind the scenes and view passport processing, vehicle checks and internal offices. In the former staff building a permanent exhibition offers information on the history of this checkpoint.
© Gedenkstätte Berlin-Hohenschönhausen/Gvoon
8. Berlin-Hohenschönhausen Memorial, Berlin 1994, 2013. The central remand prison of the Ministry of State Security was the most notorious place in the illegitimate GDR state. The interrogation rooms and cells where prisoners were psychologically broken by means of traceless “white torture” have been preserved in all their oppressive banality into an impressive memorial site.
9. Bundeswehr Memorial, Berlin 2009. On the grounds of the German Federal Ministry of Defence, architect Andreas Meck erected this externally enterable memorial in the form of a concrete cube with perforated bronze side walls. Inside, the names of 3100 Bundeswehr members who lost their lives are projected at 5-second intervals onto the wall of the “Room of Stillness”.
10. Forest of Remembrance, Potsdam 2016. The complex designed by Rüthnick Architekten as a memorial to Bundeswehr soldiers who have died in the course of deployment abroad is embedded within the trees surrounding the Operations Command barracks. A 150-meter long path with an exhibition centre at the beginning and a Room of Stillness at the end is lined with seven stelae with commemorative plaques and memorial groves brought back from the Bundeswehr’s overseas operations zones.
With their typology and design more recent memorials attempt to convey feelings of menace, deracination and despair, calling to mind – sometimes symbolically, and sometimes concretely – deportation and annihilation through scenarios with railway wagons, luggage and similar imagery. Here, in the past decade, perspectives have been expanded and further differentiated. Following the numerous memorial sites to the fates of their Jewish fellow citizens, Germans have recently erected memorials to persecuted Sinti and Roma, homosexuals, euthanasia victims and others.
Keep memory alive
German reunification provided a new occasion for memorialisation. However, to date unity has not been achieved with respect to the site of the Monday Demonstrations in Leipzig in 1989, nor in the now-unified German capital of Berlin on the subject of monuments commemorating unification in general. It seemed simpler to keep alive the memory of the “illegitimate” GDR. The Wall Museum in Berlin seeks to lend visibility to the inhuman border fortifications, although these were almost completely eliminated following reunification. The border checkpoint on the A2 between Braunschweig and Magdeburg, since 1996 "Gedenkstätte Deutsche Teilung Marienborn“ /Memorial to the Division of Germany, became a site of remembrance and historical and political education. Former facilities and prisons of the GDR’s Ministry of State Security (StaSi) from Rostock to Erfurt have been opened as documentation and remembrance centres, above all the notorious Stasiuntersuchungsgefängnis (StaSi remand prison) in Berlin-Hohenschönhausen and the Stasi Museum in the former Ministry of State Security.
Coming to terms with National Socialist iniquity and the SED dictatorship is included in the German federal government’s funding objectives. Other political themes and more recent political history such as European unification are receding into the background and are only seldom thematised by memorials or centres of remembrance.
Two current “war memorials” exist in a new form. The central Bundeswehr memorial to army members who died serving their country stands on the grounds of the Ministry of Defence in Berlin since 2009. A memorial site near Potsdam dedicated to soldiers who lost their lives in Bundeswehr deployments abroad bears the title “Forest of Remembrance (Wald der Erinnerung)“.
More recent memorials have in common an architecture that avoids emotional pathos of any sort by means of restraint and simple design. They do not flaunt national pride or pretensions to power and are not directed against other peoples, but possess an moral and ethical educational mission. They are meant to impart insight and humility and appeal to tolerance and humanity.