Participatory museology The District Six Museum
How can museums work together with local communities to redefine and reshape their role in those communities? Mandy Sanger, the Head of Education at the District Six Museum in Cape Town, sheds light on a participatory pedagogical approach.
By Mandy SangerThe relationship between a museum and local communities is a complex one that cannot be sustained meaningfully just through the traditional outreach approach which puts emphasis on strong marketing and public relations capacity but which, sadly, also reduces the relationship to an instrumentalist one designed for a coldly defined, often essentialised, community. Almost inevitably, museum professionals view the local community as an entity to go to when they deem it necessary - a very one-sided simplistic relationship reinforced by a market-driven evaluation culture. On the other hand, ministries of heritage and culture as well as professionals from larger museums often consider community museums to be of lower rank and status, assessing their relevance merely by their ability to work as outreach departments for national projects with bigger objectives. In this sense, District Six represents the apartheid-era forced displacements in the same way that Soweto represents the 1976 student uprising – a stripped-down, easily and uncritically consumed narrative manufactured for the tourist gaze, often leading to the erasure, from public discourse, of multiple developments in the recent past.
The community and the museum as active partners
A view of the District Six Museum in Cape Town in 2011
Old street signs in the District Six museum in Capetown. District Six, a mixed-race neighborhood, was declared a white-only area in 1966 and the locals forcefully removed.
A peaceful demonstration in District Six, Cape Town, South Africa, in 2005. The community museum has been instrumental in preserving the spirit of the area where more than 60 000 people were forcibly removed between 1966 and 1982.
Racial segregation in the District Six museum in Capetown during apartheid.
Even parking areas were used in accordance with racial segregation during apartheid in South Africa
A beach in Cape Town exclusively reserved for white people, photo taken on 19 August 1989
View of poor huts of Khayelitsha Township, one of the many black settlements in South Africa. Even after the official end of apartheid in 1990, most of South Africa's black population still lives in townships.
The engagement of the District Six Museum with the community is not an event or an add-on but a constantly evolving relationship – sometimes contentious, but always generative.
Today, 25 years later, disputes related to the identity of the District Six community have emerged more publicly as the ‘high stakes’ of privatised restitution possibilities become more visible. In addition, collaboration and inclusivity tend to be sacrificed in the scramble for the few opportunities presented by the production of films, publications, exhibitions, expressive art, tourism events, and other entrepreneurial pursuits that have been encouraged by powerful forces in the making of the New South Africa. Over the last few years, it has become clear how toxic the struggle for land and dignity can become when history, heritage, and personal memory are the main criteria for an exclusive form of restitution. At a time when the focus should be to move away from the racialised identities held in place by segregated spatial planning, political and popular community leaders continue to invoke race as a trump card for apartheid-defined communities to get ahead. In a city that is still dominated by deep inequalities engineered along racial lines, where social movements are weakly organised, the longing of displaced communities to return home easily morphs into expressions of racism, tribalism, xenophobia, and toxic masculinity amongst oppressed groups in the competition for desperately needed resources.
New era, new challenges
The museum shows the wayAs a counter-narrative, the anti-apartheid solidarity movement remains the foundation for the ongoing development of a District Six Museum community that sees history, heritage and memory as tools for imagining a more egalitarian future. The museum has formed strong working relationships with social justice movements such as Reclaim the City and the District Six Civic Association to deal with real fears and anxiety arising from previous apartheid-motivated displacements and new displacements through gentrification. By engaging with people with different life experiences, the museum mobilises the community to confront persistent post-apartheid forms of prejudice, discrimination and systemic oppression.
A symbiotic partnershipCommunity participation is a central catalyst of the growth of the Museum. The team at the museum is constantly creating, imagining and remaking spaces and surfaces for members of the community to occupy. The engagement of the District Six Museum with the community is not an event or an add-on but a constantly evolving relationship – sometimes contentious, but always generative. Individual members or groups from the community are invited to participate in a wide range of activities such as sharing their stories with the youth, participating in oral history projects to excavate hidden fragments of memory and retracing and marking sites in a contested landscape to offer an interpretation of the symbols, images and politics associated with District Six. This interdependent relationship usually shapes the collection, research, curatorial and education practice of the museum and it is reflected in many of its exhibitions and public programmes.
Interview with Mandy Sanger during the "Museum Conversations" 2019 in Namibia: