Erste Schritte in Deutschland Foto: © colourbox.de
For migrants with a visa

Paspor dan Visa

Untuk memasuki Jerman, Anda memerlukan paspor atau dokumen valid lainnya yang mengonfirmasi identitas Anda. Anda juga memerlukan paspor bila nanti mengunjungi kantor administrasi. Penduduk yang tidak berasal dari negara anggota Uni Eropa (UE) juga memerlukan visa. 

Visa dapat diperoleh di kedutaan besar (konsulat) Jerman di negara Anda. Apakah Anda telah memiliki kontrak kerja di Jerman atau memiliki anggota keluarga yang tinggal di sini? Jika demikian, Anda akan lebih mudah mendapatkan visa. Untuk informasi lebih lanjut, lihat Kantor Kementerian Luar Negeri. 

Penduduk yang berasal dari negara anggota UE atau Wilayah Ekonomi Eropa tidak memerlukan visa.

Kantor Catatan Sipil dan Izin Tinggal

Di Jerman, pertama-tama Anda harus lapor diri dulu di Dinas Kependudukan di kota Anda. Setelah itu, kunjungi kantor imigrasi. Anda akan mendapatkan izin tinggal di kantor imigrasi. Izin tersebut berupa kartu dengan status izin tinggal Anda. Status ini menunjukkan informasi tentang berapa lama Anda boleh menetap di Jerman dan apakah Anda diizinkan bekerja. 

Anda harus mengunjungi kantor administrasi dan Anda belum menguasai bahasa Jerman dengan baik? Jika demikian, Anda dapat menggunakan jasa interpreter: Interpreter menguasai bahasa Jerman dan bahasa Anda serta dapat membantu dalam percakapan.

Kursus Integrasi

Anda tidak menguasai bahasa Jerman dengan baik? Anda dapat mengambil kursus integrasi. Terkadang, Anda harus mengambil kursus integrasi. Dalam kursus tersebut, Anda akan belajar bahasa Jerman dengan lebih baik. Anda juga akan mendapatkan informasi penting tentang kehidupan di Jerman dalam kursus tersebut. Kantor imigrasi akan memberikan kepada Anda surat keterangan untuk mengikuti kursus kepada Anda dan memberi tahu Anda tempat kursusnya. Untuk informasi selengkapnya, baca bagian Kursus Integrasi.

Pencarian Kerja dan Pelatihan

Langkah selanjutnya adalah pencarian kerja. Anda sudah pernah mengikuti program pelatihan kerja di negara Anda atau Anda lulusan perguruan tinggi? Jika demikian, dokumen Anda harus diterjemahkan dan memperoleh pengakuan. Tanyakan di mana Anda dapat melakukannya kepada agen ketenagakerjaan. Agen ketenagakerjaan juga dapat membantu Anda mencari pekerjaan. Bila Anda belum memiliki pekerjaan atau tidak memiliki ijazah sekolah, kunjungi juga agen ketenagakerjaan. Di sana Anda akan mendapatkan konsultasi tentang pekerjaan. Anda akan dibantu bila Anda tidak yakin dengan pekerjaan yang ingin atau dapat Anda lakukan. Agen ketenagakerjaan juga akan memberikan informasi tentang pelatihan dan kursus. Untuk informasi lebih lanjut, baca bagian Pendidikan dan Pelatihan Kerja.

Anak dan Sekolah

Anak mulai umur sekitar 6 tahun harus bersekolah. Daftarkan anak Anda di sekolah. Kantor Urusan Anak dan Remaja di kota Anda dapat membantu. Untuk informasi lebih lanjut, baca bagian PAUD (Pendidikan Anak Usia Dini) dan Sistem Pendidikan.

Asuransi

Beberapa asuransi sangat penting: terutama asuransi kesehatan, asuransi pensiun, dan asuransi perawatan jangka panjang (lihat "Asuransi"). Bila Anda memiliki pekerjaan, maka Anda akan mendapatkan asuransi secara otomatis (lihat "Penerimaan Kerja"). Anda juga memerlukan rekening giro di bank (lihat bagian "Rekening Bank dan Keuangan").

Alamat Penting

Apakah Anda mencari penyedia kursus integrasi atau kantor imigrasi? Dalam Alamat Penting, Anda dapat secara langsung menemukan alamat di sekitar Anda. Pada peta akan ditampilkan hasil beserta informasi, misalnya alamat atau nomor telepon.

 
For asylum seekers

Asylum Procedure

Have you come to Germany to claim asylum? This information is important for your asylum application.

First, you are registered at an initial reception centre. From the initial reception centre, you may be relocated to a different accommodation in one of the 16 federal states. Once you have reached the reception centre assigned to you, you can submit an application for asylum at one of the branches of the Federal Office for Migration and Refugees (BAMF). The asylum procedure may take up to two years or longer.

Application

You must submit your asylum application in person to the Federal Office for Migration and Refugees (BAMF). You will receive an appointment notification for your application or the appointment will be displayed on a noticeboard in the initial reception centre. To locate the BAMF branch nearest you go here.

At the BAMF branch, your personal details will be captured. If you are older than 14 years, your fingerprint and photo will be taken. This is for the purpose of establishing that this is your first asylum application. The BAMF will inform you about your rights and duties as an asylum seeker.

In addition, you will be asked about your travel route as this determines whether or not Germany is responsible for your asylum claim. If you, for example, have had your fingerprints taken in another country, Germany may not examine your asylum application, and you will be returned to the country responsible for your claim. The authorities will therefore investigate which EU country is responsible for your asylum application. In most cases, this will be the country of first entry. This is according to the Dublin Agreement.

If Germany is responsible for your asylum claim, your application will be processed in Germany.

As soon as your asylum application has been submitted, you will receive a residence permit. The residence permit grants you legal residency in Germany for the duration of the asylum process. In some federal states, this temporary residence permit is limited to certain areas. This means that you may not leave the assigned area or the federal state during the first three months of your stay.

Each asylum seeker is assigned a case manager. This means that, if you are submitting an asylum application as a family, you will have several case managers. For this very reason, the length of the application process can vary for individual family members.

Application Interview

Each asylum seeker must attend his/her asylum interview in person. Each application is investigated on its own merits. A so-called decision-maker from the BAMF and an interpreter are present at the asylum interview.

The asylum interview is the single most important part of your asylum process and crucial for the decision. During the interview, you must explain, in as much detail as possible, why you cannot return to your home country and why you have fled your home country.

To this end, it is of particular importance to tell one’s personal story rather than to just describe the general situation in one’s home country.

If you have evidence that you are being persecuted, e.g. for political, religious or other reasons, you should bring such evidence with you to the asylum interview. At the end of this interview, you will receive a copy of the interview record. You should have this record translated back into your language and sign it only if you are certain that everything has been recorded correctly. It is extremely difficult to have corrections made retrospectively.

Decision

You will receive a letter notifying you of the decision on your asylum application. The letter will specify the reason behind the decision. If your application has been rejected, the letter will also request your departure from Germany. If this is the case, you will have to leave Germany, otherwise you will face deportation. However, you are entitled to appeal the rejection of your application. When doing so, it is advisable to seek the help of a lawyer or an advice centre.

Acceptance

Have you been granted refugee or asylum status? In this case, you are allowed to stay in Germany for at least three years. After these three years, you may receive a permanent residence permit. If you were granted national or international subsidiary protection (for one year), you may receive permanent residence after five to seven years.

Asylum seekers with a certificate of Duldung, a temporary stay of deportation, must reapply for an extension every three months. A temporary stay of deportation is not a residence status, which means that you remain obligated to leave the country and that, in theory, you may be deported at any time if the reasons for your temporary stay of deportation cease to exist. People who have been staying in Germany for a long time on the basis of a temporary stay of deportation and who are well integrated (attending school, receiving vocational training, working, learning German), may receive residence status. For more information, please contact the advice centres nearest you.

Rejection

If you come form a so-called safe country of origin or seek asylum for economic reasons, your prospects of being granted asylum status or being recognised as a refugee are not good.

Your application was rejected? In this case you have different options: either you leave Germany or you start an appeal process. For the appeal process, it is advisable to seek the help of a lawyer or of an advice centre. You have a deadline within which to leave Germany or to lodge an appeal. This deadline must be observed.

For more information go here.
 

Tanya Jawab

Negara mana yang termasuk Uni Eropa?

Negara mana yang termasuk Wilayah Ekonomi Eropa?

Dapatkah saya berkendara di Jerman menggunakan SIM saya?

Apakah Anda memiliki pertanyaan lebih lanjut tentang topik visa dan kedatangan?

I do not understand this important letter. Who can help me with complicated documents in bureaucratic German / official German?

What services are available to me as an asylum seeker?

My advisor at the social services/employment agency is treating me badly. What can I do?

Apakah Anda masih memiliki pertanyaan? Hubungi konsultan Layanan Imigrasi Pemuda.

Layanan Imigrasi Pemuda