Erste Schritte in Deutschland Foto: © colourbox.de
For migrants with a visa

여권과 비자

독일로 입국하기 위해서는 유효한  여권 또는 본인의 신분을 증명할 수 있는 서류가 필요하다.  여권은 이후 관공서 업무를 처리할 때도 필요하다. 만약 유럽연합 내 시민이 아니라면  비자도 추가적으로 필요하다. 

비자는 모국에 있는 독일 대사관에서 발급 받는다. 이때 이미 독일 노동계약서를 갖고 있거나 가족 중에 독일에 거주하고 있는 사람이 있다면 비자를 발급 받는 것이 좀 더 쉽다. 이와 관련된 정보는 외무부에서 찾아볼 수 있다. 

유럽연합 또는 유럽경제지역 시민은 비자가 필요 없다. 

주민등록청과 거주허가증

독일에 도착하면 가장 먼저 본인의 거주도시에 있는  주민등록청에 신고를 해야 한다. 그 다음 외국인관청으로 간다. 그곳에서 거주허가증을 받는다. 이것은 본인의 거주상태를. 표시한 카드다. 이를 통해 얼마나 독일에 머무를 수 있는지, 일을 할 수 있는지 알 수 있다. 

사회 정착 지원 프로그램

독일어에 능숙하지 않다면 사회 정착 지원 프로그램에 참여할 수 있다. 가끔은 의무적으로 해야 하는 경우도 있다. 이 프로그램을 통해 독일어 실력이 향상되고, 독일생활에 대한 중요한 정보를 얻을 수 있다.  외국인관청은 이 프로그램에 대한 확인서를 주고, 어디서 프로그램을 참여 할 수 있는지 안내해 줄 것이다. 추가 정보는  사회 정착 지원 프로그램 에서 읽을 수 있다.

구직과 직업교육

다음 단계는 일자리를 구하는 것이다. 모국에서 이미 직업을 배웠거나 대학과정을 이수했다면 서류를 번역하여 공증 받아야 한다. 어디서 해야 하는지는  고용지원센터에 문의할 수 있다.  고용지원센터는 구직 에 도움을 줄 것이다. 직업이 없거나 중등학교를 졸업하지 않은 경우에도  고용지원센터로 가면 된다. 그곳에서 직업에 대한 자문도 받을 수 있다. 어떤 일을 선택해야 하는지 또는 그 일이 가능한지 모를 때, 도움을 줄 수 있을 것이다. 고용지원센터는 직업교육과 다양한 프로그램에 대해서도 정보를 제공할 수 있다. 추가 정보는  대학과 직업교육 에서 확인할 수 있다.

어린이와 학교

만 6세 이상의 어린이들은 학교에 가야 한다. 자녀를 학교에 등록시키려면 거주 중인 도시에 있는 청소년청도움을 받을 수 있다. 이와 관련된 추가 정보는  영유아교육과 학교교육에서 읽을 수 있다.

보험

몇몇 보험은 매우 중요하다. 무엇보다  의료보험, 연금보험과 간병보험이 중요하다(보험 참고). 만약 일자리가 있다면 위의 보험들은 자동적으로 가입하게 되고(취직 참고) 지로계좌가 필요하다(은행계좌와 재정 참고).

For asylum seekers

Asylum Procedure

Have you come to Germany to claim asylum? This information is important for your asylum application.

First, you are registered at an initial reception centre. From the initial reception centre, you may be relocated to a different accommodation in one of the 16 federal states. Once you have reached the reception centre assigned to you, you can submit an application for asylum at one of the branches of the Federal Office for Migration and Refugees (BAMF). The asylum procedure may take up to two years or longer.

Application

You must submit your asylum application in person to the Federal Office for Migration and Refugees (BAMF). You will receive an appointment notification for your application or the appointment will be displayed on a noticeboard in the initial reception centre. To locate the BAMF branch nearest you go here.

At the BAMF branch, your personal details will be captured. If you are older than 14 years, your fingerprint and photo will be taken. This is for the purpose of establishing that this is your first asylum application. The BAMF will inform you about your rights and duties as an asylum seeker.

In addition, you will be asked about your travel route as this determines whether or not Germany is responsible for your asylum claim. If you, for example, have had your fingerprints taken in another country, Germany may not examine your asylum application, and you will be returned to the country responsible for your claim. The authorities will therefore investigate which EU country is responsible for your asylum application. In most cases, this will be the country of first entry. This is according to the Dublin Agreement.

If Germany is responsible for your asylum claim, your application will be processed in Germany.

As soon as your asylum application has been submitted, you will receive a residence permit. The residence permit grants you legal residency in Germany for the duration of the asylum process. In some federal states, this temporary residence permit is limited to certain areas. This means that you may not leave the assigned area or the federal state during the first three months of your stay.

Each asylum seeker is assigned a case manager. This means that, if you are submitting an asylum application as a family, you will have several case managers. For this very reason, the length of the application process can vary for individual family members.

Application Interview

Each asylum seeker must attend his/her asylum interview in person. Each application is investigated on its own merits. A so-called decision-maker from the BAMF and an interpreter are present at the asylum interview.

The asylum interview is the single most important part of your asylum process and crucial for the decision. During the interview, you must explain, in as much detail as possible, why you cannot return to your home country and why you have fled your home country.

To this end, it is of particular importance to tell one’s personal story rather than to just describe the general situation in one’s home country.

If you have evidence that you are being persecuted, e.g. for political, religious or other reasons, you should bring such evidence with you to the asylum interview. At the end of this interview, you will receive a copy of the interview record. You should have this record translated back into your language and sign it only if you are certain that everything has been recorded correctly. It is extremely difficult to have corrections made retrospectively.

Decision

You will receive a letter notifying you of the decision on your asylum application. The letter will specify the reason behind the decision. If your application has been rejected, the letter will also request your departure from Germany. If this is the case, you will have to leave Germany, otherwise you will face deportation. However, you are entitled to appeal the rejection of your application. When doing so, it is advisable to seek the help of a lawyer or an advice centre.

Acceptance

Have you been granted refugee or asylum status? In this case, you are allowed to stay in Germany for at least three years. After these three years, you may receive a permanent residence permit. If you were granted national or international subsidiary protection (for one year), you may receive permanent residence after five to seven years.

Asylum seekers with a certificate of Duldung, a temporary stay of deportation, must reapply for an extension every three months. A temporary stay of deportation is not a residence status, which means that you remain obligated to leave the country and that, in theory, you may be deported at any time if the reasons for your temporary stay of deportation cease to exist. People who have been staying in Germany for a long time on the basis of a temporary stay of deportation and who are well integrated (attending school, receiving vocational training, working, learning German), may receive residence status. For more information, please contact the advice centres nearest you.

Rejection

If you come form a so-called safe country of origin or seek asylum for economic reasons, your prospects of being granted asylum status or being recognised as a refugee are not good.

Your application was rejected? In this case you have different options: either you leave Germany or you start an appeal process. For the appeal process, it is advisable to seek the help of a lawyer or of an advice centre. You have a deadline within which to leave Germany or to lodge an appeal. This deadline must be observed.

For more information go here.
 

자주 묻는 질문

어떤 국가들이 유럽연합에 소속되어 있나요?

어떤 국가들이 유럽경제지역에 소속되어 있나요?

독일에서도 제 운전면허증이 유효한가요?

비자와 입국 관련 문의사항이 생길 경우엔 어떻게 하나요?

I do not understand this important letter. Who can help me with complicated documents in bureaucratic German / official German?

What services are available to me as an asylum seeker?

My advisor at the social services/employment agency is treating me badly. What can I do?

 추가적인 문의사항이 있으신 경우, 청소년 이주민을 위한 자문기관의 담당자에게 문의하여 주십시오.  

청소년 이주민을 위한 온라인 자문 (JMD)