Wohnen Foto: © colourbox.de
For migrants with a visa

Traženje stana

Tražite stan? U mnogim novinama postoje oglasi za stan, i to većinom u petkovnim ili subotnjim izdanjima. Oglase za stan naći ćete i na Internet stranicama novina. Na Internetu takođe možete naći i niz agencija za nekretnine. Čak će vam i stambena služba u vašem gradu ili okrugu često pomoći pri potrazi. U pojedinim regijama se stanovi lako nalaze. U drugim regijama je veoma teško naći stan. U takvim slučajevima vam u potrazi može pomoći posrednik u prometu nekretninama. Njega morate platiti ako vam nađe stan. Posrednici nekretninama po pravilu kao proviziju dobijaju iznos od dve do tri mesečne stanarine.

Stanarina i kaucija

U oglasima većinom stoji koliku stanarinu morate plaćati za stan. U njima je, međutim, često navedena samo stanarina bez dodatnih troškova. Uz to morate plaćati i dažbine. U to se ubrajaju, primera radi, voda, čišćenje stepeništa i odvoženje smeća. Grejanje i struja takođe mogu biti deo dažbina, ali to već zavisi. Pitajte stanodavca šta sve spada pod dažbine i šta još morate dodatno plaćati.

Stanarina bez dodatnih troškova zajedno s dažbinama naziva se stanarina s dodatnim troškovima. Ukupnu stanarinu s dodatnim troškovima svakog meseca uplaćujete na račun stanodavca.

Stanovi po pravilu nisu namešteni. Za stvari koje pripadaju stanodavcu i koje ostaju u stanu, na primer za hladnjak, morate platiti. To se zove otkupnina.

Stanodavci često od svojih stanara zahtevaju uplatu kaucije. Ona ne sme iznositi više od tri mesečne stanarine bez dodatnih troškova. Stanar pri iseljenju iz stana uplaćenu kauciju dobija nazad. Ako želite videti da li je stanarina za određeni stan suviše visoka pogledajte u listu s prosečnim cenama stanarina. U njoj možete naći prosek cena za stanarine u svakom gradu. Unesite na Internetu u pretraživač „prosečna cena stanarina“ (nem. Mietspiegel) i ime vašeg grada. 

Na početku godine se ne može znati kolika će vam biti potrošnja vode, struje ili gasa. Stoga svakog meseca plaćate predujam. Na kraju godine dobijate povraćaj novca ili pak morate nešto doplatiti.

Ugovor o najmu

Svi podaci o stanarini i kauciji navedeni su u ugovoru o najmu. U njemu je takođe navedeno da li ste obavezni da pri iseljenju renovirate stan. Osim toga ćete u njemu naći i podatke o vašem pravu na otkazni rok. Često morate potpisati protokol o primopredaji kada se useljavate u novi stan. U protokolu o primopredaji naveden je, primera radi, spisak stvari koje se nalaze u stanu. Tako ćete znati vi, a i stanodavac šta mora da ostane u stanu kada se budete iseljavali. Detaljno pročitajte ugovor o najmu i protokol o primopredaji pre nego što ih potpišete.

Kućni red

Ne želite nikakve sukobe s vašim susedima? Poštujte pravila: generalno je od 22 časa do 7 časova vreme mira i tišine. U to vreme ne smete biti izrazito glasni. Nedeljom i praznicima se vremenom mira i tišine smatra ceo dan.

U Nemačkoj postoje različite vrste kontejnera za otpad koji su predviđeni za papir i hartiju, za ostatke od voća i povrća i za preostali otpad. Staklo, konzerve i električne uređaje morate odlagati u posebne kontejnere ili ih nositi do odgovarajućih sabirnih centara. Sva ostala pravila naći ćete u vašem kućnom redu. Na primer: Da li smete u stanu držati psa ili mačku? Ili: Morate li čistiti hodnik ili mesti pristupnu stazu do vaše kuće?

 
For asylum seekers

Have you come to Germany to claim asylum? Once you have made it clear that you want to submit an asylum application, you will, initially, be accommodated in a nearby initial reception centre. It may happen, however, that you are then assigned to a different federal state where you will be accommodated anew in an initial reception centre. On the one hand, this depends on your country of origin and, on the other, on the number of people that have already been allocated to this initial reception centre.

Most of the time, initial reception centres are former schools, sports halls or other vacant buildings. They have many beds in large rooms, a canteen and a doctor. The premises are often fenced in and are policed by private security firms. You will be provided with clothing, sanitary products and three meals a day. You will be registered at the initial reception centre. This means that your personal data will be captured and you will be issued with a residence entitlement card. However, this is not yet your asylum application.

In the beginning, you will not be able to choose where in Germany you will be staying. During the first three months of your stay in Germany, you are not permitted to leave the area or the federal state you have been assigned to. Only once these three months have passed, will you be allowed to visit other federal states as well.

You will remain in the initial reception centre for up to six months. Within these six months, you will be transferred to a municipality within this federal state. This means that you will relocate to a different accommodation. Sometimes you may be able to move into a flat, but sometimes you may move into a group residence. There, residents must share a room. You will be living in this follow-up accommodation until your asylum application has been decided upon. It is particularly important that you inform the Federal Office for Migration and Refugees of your new address each time you relocate, so that important mail reaches you.

You come from a so-called safe country of origin? In this case you must remain in your initial reception centre until your asylum application has been decided upon. You may not leave the assigned area or the federal state.

When your asylum process has been completed and approved and you are given a residence permit, you are free to decide where in Germany you would like to stay. However, you are only permitted to leave the federal state if you are not receiving any state benefits, also referred to as social security benefits. This may, however, take a year or longer. You may search for a flat yourself and file an application. Or you can ask for help with your search. In this case, the local municipality will find a flat for you. You can get more information from the Office for Migration and from refugee initiatives.

Do you have a certificate of Duldung, a temporary stay of deportation? Then you will, in most cases, not be allowed to relocate within Germany.

 

Često postavljana pitanja

Imam teškoće u pronalaženju stana. Gde mogu da dobijem pomoć?

Stanovi u regiji su preskupi. Nemam novca da ih platim. Gde mogu da dobijem pomoć?

Našao/la sam stan, ali nisam siguran/na da li je ugovor o najmu u redu. Gde mogu da dobijem pomoć?

Uselio/la sam se u moj novi stan. O čemu sada moram da razmišljam?

Imate dodatnih pitanja? Kontaktirajte savetnicu ili savetnika iz Službe za mlade doseljenike.

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