Wohnen Foto: © colourbox.de
For migrants with a visa

寻找住房

您正在寻找住房?许多报纸的一般在周五或周六版都刊登有租房信息板块。同样在报纸的网页版中也可以找到该信息。您城市及社区的住房局(Wohnungsamt)也将帮助您寻找合适的房源。有些地区房子很好找,而有些地区则极为困难,这种情况下,房屋中介能够帮您寻找住房:如果他为您找到合适的房子,您就必须支付其劳动报酬。通常房屋中介费的金额为2或3个月的房屋月租金。

租金及押金

在房源信息中大都提到您将支付多少月租金。但这多数为冷租。因为,您还需额外支付房屋的额外杂费。比如水、楼道清洁和垃圾处理费等。暖气和电费可能也包括在该杂费之中,但却也不一定。因此,请事先咨询好您的房东,杂费包括哪些款项,哪些需要您额外支付。

冷租和杂费的总和称为暖租。每月须定期向房东以汇款的方式缴纳全额暖租。

一般情况下,房子并不自带家具。如果从前任房客接手留在房子里的设施或家具,比如冰箱等,您可能要支付其一定的费用,这称作“过户费”(Ablöse)

房东常常要求房客缴纳一定数量的押金,但最多不能超过3个月的冷租。在房客搬出时,将得到该押金。如要了解是否房租过高,可参考当地的租金价格指标(Mietspiegel),在那里可以找到每个城市的租金情况。请访问“Mietspiegel”网站并输入您城市的名称。 

每年年初,房客还不知道究竟消费了多少水、电或煤气。因此每个月都预先支付一定的金额。年终时,多退少补。

租赁合同

租金及押金的全部信息均在租赁合同中有明确的规定。那里也规定了在房客搬出时,是否须对房屋进行重新装修。此外,还有关于解约期限的规定。当您决定入住时,通常须在房屋交接记录上签字,以便双方明确在您搬出时,房屋的状态应与搬入时一致。在签字之前,请仔细阅读房屋合同和交接记录。

居住规定

如果您不想与邻居发生矛盾,请遵守以下原则:通常晚上22点至早7点为休息时间,下午一点至三点也是,也就是说您不能产生过高的噪音。周日与法定节假日则须保持全天安静。

在德国垃圾须进行分类,对于纸张及纸板、水果或蔬菜残渣及其它垃圾均有专属的垃圾桶。玻璃、铁罐或电子垃圾须专门送到指定的回收地点。请阅读居住规定中的其它条款,比如:是否可以在房间内饲养宠物,或者是否要清洁打扫公共走廊及门前的行人道,等等。

For asylum seekers

Have you come to Germany to claim asylum? Once you have made it clear that you want to submit an asylum application, you will, initially, be accommodated in a nearby initial reception centre. It may happen, however, that you are then assigned to a different federal state where you will be accommodated anew in an initial reception centre. On the one hand, this depends on your country of origin and, on the other, on the number of people that have already been allocated to this initial reception centre.

Most of the time, initial reception centres are former schools, sports halls or other vacant buildings. They have many beds in large rooms, a canteen and a doctor. The premises are often fenced in and are policed by private security firms. You will be provided with clothing, sanitary products and three meals a day. You will be registered at the initial reception centre. This means that your personal data will be captured and you will be issued with a residence entitlement card. However, this is not yet your asylum application.

In the beginning, you will not be able to choose where in Germany you will be staying. During the first three months of your stay in Germany, you are not permitted to leave the area or the federal state you have been assigned to. Only once these three months have passed, will you be allowed to visit other federal states as well.

You will remain in the initial reception centre for up to six months. Within these six months, you will be transferred to a municipality within this federal state. This means that you will relocate to a different accommodation. Sometimes you may be able to move into a flat, but sometimes you may move into a group residence. There, residents must share a room. You will be living in this follow-up accommodation until your asylum application has been decided upon. It is particularly important that you inform the Federal Office for Migration and Refugees of your new address each time you relocate, so that important mail reaches you.

You come from a so-called safe country of origin? In this case you must remain in your initial reception centre until your asylum application has been decided upon. You may not leave the assigned area or the federal state.

When your asylum process has been completed and approved and you are given a residence permit, you are free to decide where in Germany you would like to stay. However, you are only permitted to leave the federal state if you are not receiving any state benefits, also referred to as social security benefits. This may, however, take a year or longer. You may search for a flat yourself and file an application. Or you can ask for help with your search. In this case, the local municipality will find a flat for you. You can get more information from the Office for Migration and from refugee initiatives.

Do you have a certificate of Duldung, a temporary stay of deportation? Then you will, in most cases, not be allowed to relocate within Germany.

 

常见问题

我找房遇到困难。在哪儿可以寻求帮助?

我所在地区的房价租金过高,不能承受。在哪里可以寻求帮助?

我找到了一个房子。但还并不确定租赁合同是否有问题。我该怎么办?

我已经搬入了新房子。还要注意哪些事情?

 如有其它疑问,请联系青少年移民服务中心的咨询人员。

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