Eastern Market
German Roots in Washington

  • Eastern Market exterior, 2004. Image credit: Adolf Cluss Project/William Lebovich
    Eastern Market exterior, 2004.
  • Eastern Market reopened June 26, 2009. Image Credit: Goethe-Institut Washington/William Gilcher
    Eastern Market reopened June 26, 2009.
  • A renovated Eastern Market is once again humming with activity. (June 2009) Image Credit: Goethe-Institut Washington/Norma Broadwater
    A renovated Eastern Market is once again humming with activity. (June 2009)
  • Adolf Cluss, German-American architect of Eastern Market, visited to inspect the progress of renovation. (July 2007) Image Credit: Goethe-Institut Washington/William Gilcher
    Adolf Cluss, German-American architect of Eastern Market, visited to inspect the progress of renovation. (July 2007)
  • The interior of the Great Hall after the fire, 2007. Image Credit: Goethe-Institut Washington/William Gilcher
    The interior of the Great Hall after the fire, 2007.
  • Eastern Market suffered massive damage during a fire on April 30, 2007. Image Credit: Goethe-Institut Washington/William Gilcher
    Eastern Market suffered massive damage during a fire on April 30, 2007.
  • The City of Washington committed to extensive renovations and repairs of Eastern Market following the 2007 fire. Image credit: Goethe-Institut Washington/William Gilcher
    The City of Washington committed to extensive renovations and repairs of Eastern Market following the 2007 fire.
  • Detail of Eastern Market's facade, 2007. Image credit: Stadtarchiv Heilbronn/Miriam Eberlein
    Detail of Eastern Market's facade, 2007.
  • Detail of Eastern Market's facade, 2007. Image Credit: Stadtarchiv Heilbronn/Miriam Eberlein
    Detail of Eastern Market's facade, 2007.
  • Interior of Eastern Market, 2004. Image Credit: Adolf Cluss Project/William Lebovich
    Interior of Eastern Market, 2004.
  • Eastern Market exterior, 2004. Image Credit: Adolf Cluss Project/William Lebovich
    Eastern Market exterior, 2004.
  • Customers throng to markets both in and outside Eastern Market. Photo 2000. Image Credit: Goethe-Institut Washington/William Gilcher
    Customers throng to markets both in and outside Eastern Market. Photo 2000.
  • Eastern Market, east front, 1972. Image Credit: Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, HABS DC, WASH, 415-1
    Eastern Market, east front, 1972.
Originally established in 1805 by order of President Thomas Jefferson, the current Eastern Market building was designed by Adolf Cluss and constructed in 1873 in the wake of the explosive growth of Washington, DC after the Civil War. The man in charge of the project was German-born architect Adolf Cluss (1825-1905), who planned a brick building 55 meters long and 15 meters wide with three open levels and numerous skylights. The market’s popularity soared, and two new halls were added in 1908. 

Eastern Market was meant to serve its neighborhood, a small building in contrast to the enormous Center Market (built 1871-78 and the largest in the country in its time), which Cluss built downtown. Center Market was demolished in 1931 to make way for the then new National Archives building.In the course of the twentieth century, Eastern Market’s importance decreased with the advent of supermarkets. Citizens stood up for the market, though - in 1964 it was classified as a historic landmark and today has regained much of its fame as the heart of the neighborhood, now encompassing an arts and crafts fair and flea market as well as a food market.Eastern Market is now one of the few public markets in the city and the only one maintaining its original role as a public market. The building's importance, as well as that of its architect, Adolf Cluss, was recognized with a commemorative plaque unveiled in October 2005 by the two cities of Washington, DC and Heilbronn, Germany. Struck by a disastrous fire on April 30, 2007, the market has rebounded and is flourishing once again.

 

Adolf Cluss, Architect

born Heilbronn, 1825
died Washington DC, 1905


Adolf Cluss dominated Washington's architectural scene from the mid-1860s to his retirement in 1890. As a city planner and engineer, he also helped to shape the very appearance of the city's streets and houses. Yet most Washingtonians today know little of this German immigrant's work, or of his youthful activities as a Marxist writer and organizer during and after Germany's Revolution of 1848.

Cluss broke into the field of architecture in Washington at the age of 39, when he and his partner, Josef Wildrich von Kammerhueber, won a competition for the plan for a new elementary school, the first of eight innovative schools they designed. Two of those buildings survive: the Franklin and Sumner schools. Soon Cluss, alone or with partners, won contracts for many of Washington's major public buildings of the post-Civil War years. Cluss designed three of the four buildings built on the south side of the Mall by 1890, including the Smithsonian Arts and Industries Building (the original National Museum), the only one of the three that still survives. He designed at multiple churches, a hospital, market houses in Washington and Alexandria, and an opera house in Baltimore. His Eastern Market, Masonic Lodge, Calvary Baptist Church, a Fire Station, and one residence in Washington and the City Hall in Alexandria also survived.

Though public buildings seemed to interest him most, he also entered the booming housing market during the Washington's rapid growth after the Civil War. He designed elaborate row houses for the new wealthy class of the city, as well as Washington's first apartment building, almost all replaced in the 20th century by commercial buildings.

As the city's engineer and member of the Board of Public Works in the early 1870s, he superintended the extensive street paving and grading, and the design and building of the city's sewage system. Evidence also suggests that Cluss developed the plan that narrowed Washington's unusually wide streets, and encouraged property owners to plant gardens on the leftover street right-of-way in front of their houses. His plan decreased the city's responsibility for paving and street maintenance, and encouraged homeowners to beautify the city land in front of their houses. He also proposed the regulation allowing construction of houses with bays, porticos, and towers extending four feet beyond the front property lines. With their varied fronts and small yards and gardens, Cluss's proposals made Washington's row houses distinctively different from row houses in other east coast cities. Cluss also suggested the tree planting commission which in the following years planted thousands of trees along most of Washington's streets.

During his professional career, however, Cluss successfully concealed the role he played in his twenties as a friend of Karl Marx and a leader in the communist movement. In biographical accounts Cluss recorded that he was the son and grandson of architects in the German Kingdom of Württemberg, that he worked as a engineer in railroad construction in the Rhine Valley, that he emigrated to the United States in 1848, and moved to Washington, working in several government agencies as a draftsman.

A half-century after his death more facts emerged from European sources. Cluss met Karl Marx in Brussels and joined the Communist League. He became secretary of the Communist League in the city of Mainz, and represented workers as a propagandist and leader in the Revolution of 1848. After the failure of the revolution, Cluss emigrated to the United States. For nearly ten years he corresponded, often weekly, with Marx, Marx's wife, Jenny, Frederick Engels and other leaders of the communist movement in Europe. He wrote articles for German-American newspapers and traveled to participate in worker's meetings. Marx admired Cluss. In 1851, he said, "He is one of our best and most talented men, and the following year, he said of Cluss, "As an agent, the fellow's beyond compare."

By 1858, however, Cluss became disillusioned. There is no evidence of a falling-out with Marx. In fact, Jenny Marx's account of Cluss's visit to London in 1858, apparently to end his relationship with Marx, suggests an emotionally divided man. More likely, the always-practical Cluss concluded that communism had little future in the social and political environment he found in the United States. His employment as surveyor and draftsman for federal agencies, moreover, must have stimulated his professional interests and thoughts of his future possibilities in Washington. His marriage in 1859 also suggests that in a still strange land, he desired the security of a family life.

Becoming a respected and prosperous member of Washington's middle class, Cluss's clients included federal and city governments and wealthy capitalists. He became a friend of President Grant and other political and military leaders. What he thought of the United States' growing labor disputes and violence in the 1870s, or of the publication of Das Kapital, or the death of Marx in 1883 remains Adolf Cluss's secret. Though probably no longer a Marxist, Cluss's devotion to improving the man-made environment of the nation's capital, and building attractive but functional public buildings, suggests that he retained from his youthful idealism and experiences in Germany a vision of a good society.

Joseph L. Browne, Ph.D., Director, Adolf Cluss Project.

Franklin School
Calvary Baptist Church
Center Market
Eastern Market
Charles Sumner School Museum and Archives
Masonic Temple
Metropolitan Hook and Ladder Company
Martin Luther Statue
Adolf Cluss Projekt Washington-Heilbronn